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|Title: ||Alternative practices used by resource limited farmers to control fleas in free range chickens in the Eastern Cape Province South Africa|
|Authors: ||Moyo, Sipho|
|Issue Date: ||2009|
|Publisher: ||University of Fort Hare|
Alternative Practices Used by Resource-limited Farmers to Control Fleas
in Free-Range Chickens in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Fleas are one of the major external parasites affecting free range chickens, causing irritation,
tissue damage, blood loss and toxicosis which in turn affect quality and quantity of meat and
egg production. There are many commercial insecticides available that are effective against
fleas. These commercial insecticides have, however become expensive to most resourcelimited
farmers and therefore unaffordable, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives.
This study was conducted to document, determine the existence of external parasites in freerange
chickens and validate the alternative remedies used in controlling free-range chicken
fleas by resource-limited farmers. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data on external
parasites of free-range chickens and ethno-veterinary control remedies used by resourcelimited
farmers to control these parasites at Amatola basin, in Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Resource-limited farmers perceived that mites (79.6%), fleas (64.5%), lice (10.8%) and ticks
(6.5%) were problematic parasites of chickens. To control these parasites, resource-limited
farmers commonly use ash (28%) madubula (13% carbolic acid) (26.7%), Jeyes fluid (13%
carbolic acid) (10%), paraffin (8.4%), used engine oil (2.8%), plants Tagetes minuta, Clutia
pulchella, Calpurnia aurea (5.2%) and a few (4.2%) used commercial drugs Karbadust
(Carbarly 5%) and mercaptothion 5%. About 7.5% of the respondents used neither of the
remedies. To confirm the farmers’ perception on problematic external parasites of free-range
chickens a diagnostic survey was conducted. Fifty free-range chickens were randomly
selected and examined for external parasites. About 96% of the free-range chickens examined
harboured at least one species of external parasites. Fleas (Echidnophaga gallinacea) (50.7%)
were the most prevalent followed by lice, Menopon gallinae (12.4%); Menacanthus
stramineus (5.3%) and Knemidocoptes mutans (0.57%). Given that Jeyes fluid, used engine
oil, paraffin, C. aurea, C. pulchella and T. minuta were mainly used in controlling these
parasites, it was important to determine the potential dermal irritant effects of these plants. A
dermal irritant effect test was, therefore, conducted using a rat model. Forty eight rats, with
parts of the backs shaven, were used to screen the materials for irritation. All the materials
tested did not cause any visible skin irritation on rats (p>0.05). Regarding that ethnoveterinary
materials were non irritant on rat skin in vitro repellency and contact bio-assay
models were used to assess the insecticidal properties of Tagetes minuta, Calpurnia aurea,
Clutia pulchella, used engine oil, paraffin and Jeyes fluid on fleas. For the in vitro bioassay T.
minuta and Jeyes fluid at 100% concentration demonstrated a repellency level of 76 and 83%,
respectively. Tagetes minuta was the most effective among plant materials (p<0.05). Clutia
pulchella, C. aurea, used engine oil and paraffin showed insignificant repellency (p>0.05).
For the contact bio-assay, C. pulchella, C. aurea and T. minuta at a concentration of 100%
resulted in flea mortality of 83.5, 73.3 and 42.5%, respectively. The efficacy of Clutia
pulchella compared well with that of Karbadust which had a mean mortality of 97.5%.
Paraffin, used engine oil, and Jeyes fluid (19.2%) caused higher flea mortality of more than
82%. In the in vivo study 60 free-range chickens were artificially infested with fleas and test
materials were topically applied on infested sites. Test materials exhibited varying flea load
reduction efficacy. Used engine oil and Jeyes fluid at 76.8% concentration had a reduction
efficacy of 100 and 96% after 3 days post application of test materials. These were not
significantly different to that of the positive control Kabadust (carbaryl 5%). The plants C.
pulchella and C aurea at 100% concentration had an efficacy of 92 and 77%, respectively.
The commonly used remedies by resource-limited farmers to control fleas vary in efficacy.
Some of the materials are as effective as the commercial insecticides hence they have a
potential to be exploited as insecticides. Further investigations on plant compounds with
insecticidal properties and their toxicity, need to be conducted before the plants are
recommended for use.|
|Description: ||Thesis (M.Sc.Agric.)(Animal Science)--University of Fort Hare, 2009|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings: ||Fleas--Control--South Africa--Eastern Cape|
Chickens--Diseases--South Africa--Eastern Cape
Parasites--South Africa--Eastern Cape
insecticides--South Africa--Eastern Cape
Chickens--Parasites--South Africa--Eastern Cape
|Appears in Collections:||Theses and Dissertations (Animal Science)|
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